The First Hall Annotation. The fateful Battle Field of European history. Ukrainian factor in European policy of XVII century
The State Historical and Cultural Preserve «the Poltava Battle Field» was founded in 1981. Its general territory is 1 906, 42 acres of guarded area. There are 30 ancient burial mounds and 4 ancient settlements on the historical territory of the Field. There is a number of fateful for European History events which took place there: an episode of the battle between warriors of the Great Dutch of Lithuania Vitovt and the Horde Khan Temir-Kutluy in 1399; the tug-of-war between Hetman of Ukraine Ivan Vygovskiy and Poltava colonel Martyn Pushkar in 1658; the great Battle of Poltava in 1709; the huge operation «Frentik» which took place there during the Second World War in 1944. In honor of the events of 1709 the Museum of the Poltava Battle was founded. Also there were created many monuments on the Field of the great Battle. They are the church of St. Sampsony, the monument on Russian warriors Bed of Honor, monuments «To Swedes from Russians» and «To Swedes from their compatriots», monuments at redoubts places on the battle field.
As the initial component of Ukraine Poltava province has become one of the main regions of Ukrainian nation formation. In XVI-XVII centuries the new nation interests were expressed by Cossacks. Kyivo-Mohylyanska Academy was founded in 1615 and became the ideological centre of Ukraine — there are many famous people among its graduates; they are 16 Hetmans of Ukraine including Ivan Mazepa and Pylyp Orlyk, the chroniclers Grigoriy Grabyanka and Samyilo Velychko and Pheofan Prokopovych — the creator of Peter I Russian Empire ideology.
In the middle of XVII century radical changes in political balance of Europe forces took place. They were connected with Bohdan Khmelnytsky — in 1648 he started the National Liberation War against Polish-Lithuanian state; later this war grew into Ukrainian National Revolution.
Foundation of Cossack State by Khmelnytsky was the main outcome of his foreign multiplex activity. That time this Cossack State became the serious factor of policy among European countries.
The exposition of the First Hall contains archeological material found on the Field. There are arms objects of XIV-XVII centuries, everyday life things of XVII century, Ukrainian sacral art objects of XVII century, portraits of famous cultural and state figures of Ukraine and neighbor states of XIV-XVII centuries.