The Eighth Hall Annotation. The Second period of the Great Northern war (1709-1721). Consequences of Poltava battle for Ukraine
Ukrainian company of Charles XII finished after capitulation of his army near Perevolochnaya fortress. On June 30, 1709, Swedish troops reached the Dnieper at night and found absolutely destroyed fortress Perevolochna — there was no chance to cross the river. Zaporizhzhya Cossacks helped Charles XII, Mazepa, their escort and a part of Union troops to cross the Dnieper. Rests of Swedish army capitulated after Russian troops, headed by A. Menshikov, reached Perevolochnaya fortress. Swedish general A. Lewenhaupt betrayed his allies — Cossacks. And just after that a great number of Mazepa Cossacks, which had been hunted and caught at the region, was executed right in front of Swedish prisoners. As for Charles XII and Mazepa — guided by Cossacks, they retreated across wild steppes and reached Turkish lands; Turkish government allowed them to settle resided in small town Varnita — suburbs of Bender.
Ivan Mazepa, the Hetman of Ukraine, died on September 22 (October 2).
P. Orlyk became his successor — the Hetman in immigration. He renewed the Treaties with Crimea and Sweden, and created the treaty between Hetman and forces of Zaporizhzhya Sich on April 5, 1710. This document became a result of long time development of the state and legislation thought in Ukraine; it was named «The Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk». That was the first written Constitution in the world — long before the classical American constitution, it declared the priority of democratic principles. P. Orlyk and his accomplices — there were many citizens of Poltava among them — struggled for independence of Ukraine during all their life.
After Poltava battle, Skoropadsky was totally confirmed as a Hetman of Under-Moscow Ukraine. Instead of traditional treaty with Moscow government the new Hetman got the so-called «Reshetilovskie Articles», which left for the Hetman only nominal autonomous rights.
After events of June 1709, there were changes in structure of Poltava regiment hierarchy; that was made because of its officers, who returned Mazepa’s lead.
The Battle of Poltava was finished, but the Great Northern war continued and lasted for twelve years.
One of the little-known pages of the second period of war touches so-called «The Prut crusade» of Peter I (1711). It became the consequence of Ottoman Empire entering into the war with Russia. The High Porte was disquieted by strengthening of Peter I positions after Poltava events. The war with Turkey and its allies finished for Russia by the full catastrophe and by signing of derogative peace treaty — according this treaty, Peter I had to give Azov, Taganrog, Kamenny Zaton to Turks, and to confess P. Orlyk as a Hetman of the Right-bank Ukraine. Though the main demands of the Prut treaty were not fulfilled, the Russian positions in the region considerably weakened. At the same time, Turkish diplomatists ignored interests of their ally — Charles XII. And Peter I returned to conquering Baltic lands.
The second period of the war is characterized by such events: August II returned to Poland and renovated his treaty with Peter I; Denmark, Prussia and Hanover entered the war with Sweden; Swedes were pulled out of their possessions upper Scandinavian peninsular; Russian held the sea war and landed at Sweden sea-coast.
On August 30, 1721, Russia and Sweden signed Treaty of Nystad. According to demands, Russia got the gates to the Baltic Sea and controlled the major part of this region. But this gave the ground to future conflicts between Sweden and Russia in XVIII — XIX centuries (as Russia was not satisfied by received trophy).
After this war Russia became a powerful empire, which later swallowed Ukraine, Poland, Crimea and Finland.
The Hall exposition presents maps, graphic and illustrative material about the second period of the war and its consequences for Ukraine and other states. Documents of that time show us political acts of Ukraine history period after Poltava events. Also, there is a renovated fragment of a frigate deck (beginning of XVIII cent.) and that time weapon presented here.